The entire island is part the network of Natura 2000 biotopes.
Schinoussa’s flora mainly comprises two types of Mediterranean vegetation, the maquis (tall bush which mainly includes Kermes oaks (Quercus coccifera) and lentiscs (Pistacia lentiscus), and a dwarf bush steppe called ‘phrygana’ (dry bush dominated by Genista acanthoclada but including heather, sage, thyme, oregano and lavender).
There are also many prickly pears (frangosykies)in the area of Messaria.
But the island’s flora also includes olive, arbutus and myrtle trees, as well as various bulbs like crocus(crocus tournefortii), hyacinth, tulip and types of orchid.
The entire Small Cyclades group of islands is important for migratory birds. The sea area provides refuge to the Monachus monachus seal, while two more marine mammals are occasionally sighted, the dolphin (Delphinus delphis) and the harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena).
Schinoussa’s range of reptiles includes the Elaphe quatuorlineata, the Hemidactylus turcicus, the Podarcis erhardii and the Cyrtodactylus kotschyi.